Social representations of health, and healthy lifestyle among Warsaw specialists, entrepreneurs and managers
More details
Hide details
Zakład Epidemiologii, Prewencji Chorób Układu Krążenia i Promocji Zdrowia, Narodowy Instytut Kardiologii, Polska
Zakład Epidemiologii, Prewencji Chorób Układu Krążenia i Promocji Zdrowia (do 2019 r.), Narodowy Instytut Kardiologii, Polska
Agnieszka Anna Borowiec   

Zakład Epidemiologii, Prewencji Chorób Układu Krążenia i Promocji Zdrowia, Narodowy Instytut Kardiologii, Polska
Submission date: 2020-06-02
Final revision date: 2021-06-30
Acceptance date: 2021-07-05
Publication date: 2022-01-12
Rozprawy Społeczne/Social Dissertations 2021;15(3):86–109
Abstract: The aim of the study was identification of social representations of health among Warsaw specialists, entrepreneurs and managers, and verifying the hypotheses that the leading healthy lifestyle is promoted by understanding health as a "renewable resources" and hindered by understanding health as the "absence of disease" and "well-being". Material and methods: Six focus group interviews and the survey on a quota-based sample of 500 respondents were conducted. To data analyse PCA and multiple linear regression analysis were used Results: Five dimensions of social representation of health were identified: biomedical, functional, biopsychosocial, behavioural and related to self-assessment. The hypotheses about positive relationship between healthy lifestyles and understanding health as "resources" (biomedical dimension) and negative - understanding health as "well-being" (biopsychosocial dimension) have been confirmed. Understanding health as "healthy lifestyle" is favourable for leading healthy lifestyle while as "health self-assessment" - unfavourable. Conclusions: Knowledge about understanding health can help formulate health promotion programs.
Baah-Odoom D. (2012). The Social Representations of HIV/AIDS and Condom Use among Male Pupils in Selected School in UK. Gender and Behaviour, 10(1), 4433-4442.
Bauer M.W., Gaskell G.(1999). Towards a Paradigm for Research on Social Representation. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 29,163-186.
Berger, P., L., (1995). Rewolucja kapitalistyczna: pięćdziesiąt tez o dobrobycie, równości i wolności. Warszawa: Oficyna Naukowa.
Bishop, F., Yardley, L. (2010). The development and initial validation of a new measure of lay definitions of health: The wellness beliefs scale. Psychology and Health, 25(3), 271-87, DOI: 10.1080/08870440802609980.
Blaxter, M. (1990). Health & Lifestyle. Londyn i New York (UK, USA): Tavistock/Routledge.
Blaxter, M. (2009). Zdrowie. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Sic!.
Blaxter, M., Paterson E. (1982). Mothers and daughters: A three-generational study of health attitudes and behavior. London: Heinemann Educational Books.
Borowiec, A. A., Lignowska, I, (2015). How Do Poles Perceive Health? The Social Representation of Health and its Importance for the Social Order. Polish Sociological Review, 4(192), 511-528.
Borraccino, A., Pera, R., Lemma, P. (2019). “What being healthy means to me”: A qualitative analysis uncovering the core categories of adolescents’ perception of health. PLoS ONE, 14(6), 1-11. https://doi. org/10.1371/journal.pone.0218727.
Bourdieu P. (2005). Dystynkcja. Społeczna krytyka władzy sądzenia. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar.
Bourdieu P., Wacquant L. J. D. (2001). Zaproszenie do socjologii refleksyjnej. Warszawa: Oficyna Naukowa.
Buck, J.S., Ryan-Wenger, N.A. (2003). Early Adolescents’ Definition of Health: The Development of a New Taxonomy. The Journal of Theory Construction & Testing, 7(2), 50-55.
Callaghan, P. (1999). Health beliefs and their influence on United Kingdom nurses’ health-related behaviors. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 29(1), 28-35. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2648.1999.00834.x.
CBOS. (2018). Aktywność fizyczna Polaków. Komunikat z badań. Warszawa: CBOS.
CBOS. (2019a). Jak zdrowo odżywiają się Polacy. Komunikat z badań. Warszawa: CBOS.
CBOS. (2019b). Postawy wobec palenia papierosów. Komunikat z badań. Warszawa: CBOS.
Cockerham W.C. (1999). Health and social change in Russia and Eastern Europe. New York, London: Routledge.
Cockerham, W.C. (2005). Health lifestyle theory and the convergence of agency and structure. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 46(1), 61-67.
Cockerham, W.C. (2007). Health lifestyles and the absence of the Russian middle class. Sociology of Health and Illness, 29(3), 457-473. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9566.2007.00492.x.
Cockerham, WC.(2012). The intersection of life expectancy and gender in a transitional state: the case of Russia. Sociology of Health and Illness, 34(6), 943–957. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9566.2011.01454.x.
Crawford R. (1980). Healthism and the medicalization of everyday life. International Journal of HealthServices, 10(3), 365-388.
Crawford, R. (2006). Health as a meaningful social practice. Health, 10(4), 401-420. DOI: 10.1177/1363459306067310.
D’Houtaud, A., Field, M.G. (1984). The image of health: variations in perception by social class in a French population. Sociology of Health and Illness, 6(1), 30–60. DOI: 10.1111/1467-9566.ep10777358.
Damron-Rodriguez, J., Frank, J.C., Enriquez-Haas,s V., Reuben, D.B. (2005). Definitions of Health Among Diverse Groups of Elders: Implications for Health Promotion. Generations, 29(2),11–16.
Domański H. (1999). Klasa średnia. W: Encyklopedia socjologii, Warszawa: Oficyna Wydawnicza.
Domański, H. (2002). Polska klasa średnia. Wrocław: Fundacja na Rzecz Nauki Polskiej.
Domaradzki, J. (2013). O skrytości zdrowia. O problemach z konceptualizacją pojęcia zdrowie. Hygeia Public Health, 48(4), 408-419.
Echabe, A. E., Guillen, C. S., Ozamiz, J. A. (1992). Representations of health, illness and medicines: Coping strategies and health-promoting behaviour. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 31(3), 339-349. DOI: 10.1111/j.2044-8260.1992.tb01003.x.
Flick, U, Fischer, C, Neuber, A Schwartz, F.W., Walter, U. (2003). Health in the Context of Growing Old: Social Representations of Health. Journal of Health Psychology, 8, 539-556.
Flick, U. (2000). Qualitative Inquires into Social Representation of Health. Journal of Health Psychology 5(3), 315 – 324. DOI: 10.1177/135910530000500303.
Gabe, J., Bury M., Elston, M. (2006). Lay knowledge. W: Key Concepts in Medical Sociology, London: Sage Publications, 135-139.
Garay, F. V., de la Caridad Moncada Santos, C. M., Rodríguez, D.G. (2019). Representación social de la salud en ancianos de un área de salud en Santiago de Cuba (Social representation of health in aged patients from a health area in Santiago de Cuba). Medisan, 23(1), 52-64.
Gdula, M., Sadura, P., (2013). Style życia jako rywalizujące uniwersalności. W: M. Gdula, P. Sadura (red.). Style życia i porządek klasowy w Polsce. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar.
Gilbert, K.L., Quinn, S.C., Goodman, R.M., Butler, J., Wallace, J. (2013). A Meta-Analysis of Social Capital and Health: A Case for Needed Research. Journal of Health Psychology, 18(11), 1385–1399. DOI: 10.1177/1359105311435983.
Gould, R., Brown, S. L., Bramwell, R. (2010). Psychological adjustment to gynaecological cancer: Patients’illness representations, coping strategies and mood disturbance. Psychology & Health, 25(5), 633– 646. DOI: 10.1080/08870440902811163.
Greenhalgh, T., Wessely, S. (2004) ‘Health for me’: a sociocultural analysis of healthism in the middle classes. British Medical Bulletin, 69(1), 197-213. DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldh013.
Harvey, J.N., Lawson, V.L. (2009). The importance of health belief models in determining self-care behaviour in diabetes. Diabetic Medicine, 26(1), 5-13. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2008.02628.x.
Herzlich, C. (1973). Health and Illness: A Social Psychological Analysis. London and New York (UK, USA): Academic Press in cooperation with the European Association of Experimental Social Psychology.
Howarth, C. (2006). A social representation is not a quiet thing: Exploring the critical potential of socialrepresentation theory. British Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 65-86. DOI: 10.1348/014466605X43777.
Journal of Health Psychology, 24(5), 640-649. DOI: 10.1177/1359105316679247.
Jovchelovitch, S., Gervais, M.C. (1999). Social Representations of Health and Illness: The Case of the Chinese Community in England. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 9(4), 247-260. 10.1002/ (SICI)1099-1298(199907/08)9:4<247::AID-CASP500>3.0.CO;2-E.
Kirscht, J.P., Haefner, D.P., Kegeles, S.S., Rosenstock, I.M. (1966). A national study of health beliefs, Journal of health and Human Behavior, 7(4), 248-254. DOI: 10.2307/2948771.
Koudstaal, K., Verdonk, P., Bartels, E., (2020). “At this age, a Moroccan woman’s life’s work is over”-older Moroccan-Dutch migrant women’s perceptions of health and lifestyle, with a focus on Ramadan experiences: qualitative research integrating education and consultation. International Journal for Equity in Health, 19 (1), 1-12. DOI: 10.1186/s12939-020-1141-9.
Leszkowicz-Baczyński, J. (2007). Klasa średnia w Polsce? Sytuacja pracy, mentalność, wartości. Zielona Góra: Oficyna Wydawnicza Uniwersytetu Zielonogórskiego.
Mills C. Wright, 1965, Białe kołnierzyki. Amerykańskie klasy średnie. Warszawa: KiW.
Mokounkolo, R., Mullet, E. (1999). Lay beliefs on the nature of health: an English-French comparison. Social Behavior & Personality, 27(5), 439-453. DOI: 10.2224/sbp.1999.27.5.439.
Moscovici, S., Foreword, W., Herzlich, C. (1973). Health and Illness: A Social Psychological Analysis. London and New York (UK, USA): Academic Press in cooperation with the European Association of Experimental Social Psychology, p ix-xiv.
Ostrowska A. (1999). Styl życia a zdrowie. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo IFiS PAN.
Palska, H. (2000). Czy nowe style życia Polaków? Wybrane wymiary stylu życia „ludzi sukcesu”. W: Domański H., Ostrowska, A, Rychard, A(red.) Jak żyją Polacy, Warszawa: Wydawnictwo IFiS PAN, 335-362.
Pilewska-Kozak, A. B., Pałucka K., Łepecka-Klusek, C. , Stadnicka, G., Jurek K, Dobrowolska, B.B. (2020). Perception of health, health behaviours and the use of prophylactic examinations in postmenopausal women. BMC Women’s Health, 20, 71 DOI: 10.1186/s12905-020-00931-9.
Pill, R., Stott, N.C.H. (1982). Concept of illness causation and responsibility: some preliminary data from a sample of working class mothers. Social Science and Medicine, 16(1), 43-52. DOI: 10.1016/0277-9536(82)90422-1.
Puchalski, K, Korzeniowska, E., Piwowarska-Pościk, L. (1999). Aktywność zdrowotna a świadomość potoczna. Łódz: Instytut Medycyny Pracy.
Puchalski, K. (1997). Zdrowie w świadomości społecznej. Łódź: Instytut Medycyny Pracy.
Ramirez, A., Yovany, L. (2006). Epresentaciones sociales de la salud y la enfermedad: Un estudio comparativo entre operadores de la salud y pacientes hospitalizados en Bucaramanga y Floridablanca. MedUnab, 9(3), 211–220.
Sadura P. (2013) Wielość w jedności: klasa średnia i jej zróżnicowanie. W: M. Gdula, P. Sadura (red.). Style życia i porządek klasowy w Polsce. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar.
Savage, M., Barlow, J., Dickens, P., Fielding, T. (1995). Property, Bureaucracy and culture. Middle class formation in contemporary Britain. London and New York: Routledge.
Shimizu, H., Silva, J.R., de Moura, L.M., Bermúdez, X.P. (2015). The structure of social representations on health and illness among members of social movements. Ciencia & saude coletiva. 20 (9), 2899-910.
Trutkowski, C. (1999). Społeczne reprezentacje polityki. Budapest: Open Society Institute, Higher Education Support Program, Praha: Research Support Scheme.
Velotti, P., Pace, C., S., Petrocchi, C., Zavattini, G., C. (2019). Representations of health, illness and care by Eastern European, South American and Italian nurses: A qualitative study.
Weber, M. (2010). Etyka Protestancka a duch kapitalizmu. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Aletheia.
Williams, R. (1983). Concepts of health: an analysis of lay logic. Sociology, 17(2), 184-204. DOI: 10.1177/0038038583017002003.
Woynarowska, B., (2007). Edukacja zdrowotna, Warszawa: PWN.