Nootropic drugs Method supporting memory and concentration at work and studies
More details
Hide details
Katedra Psychologii Klinicznej i Neuropsychologii, Uniwersytet Marii Curie – Skłodowskiej w Lublinie, Polska
Robert Jarosław Modrzyński   

Katedra Psychologii Klinicznej i Neuropsychologii, Uniwersytet Marii Curie – Skłodowskiej w Lublinie, Polska
Submission date: 2021-02-09
Final revision date: 2021-04-15
Acceptance date: 2021-04-15
Publication date: 2021-08-31
Rozprawy Społeczne/Social Dissertations 2021;15(2):117–125
Abstract: The modern generation is often called "instant", which is characterized by the need for immediate gratification. In this reality, success depends on cognitive skills. Despite the fact that nootropic drugs, i.e. natural and synthetic substances that improve cognitive processes, such as concentration, memory, learning and motivation, are commonly used in the treatment of patients suffering from attention deficit disorder (ADHD), patients with epilepsy, after stroke of the brain or people suffering from dementia, their real "career" comes when healthy people started using these drugs, in particular students and employees of demanding professions. The article addresses the issue of nootropics drugs. The most popular neurostimulants are presented, along with a description of their action and their prevalence of use. The author also reviews the effectiveness of nootropis drugs basing on available scientific research in the subject literature. The article ends with a reflection on the future of neurostimulants. Material and methods: NA Results: NA Conclusions: NA
Battleday R.M., Brem A.K. (2015). Modafinil for cognitive neuroenhancement in healthy non-sleep-deprived subjects: a systematic review. „Eur Neuropsychopharmacol”, 25(11), s. 1865-1881.
Benson K., Flory K., Humphreys K. L., Lee S. S. (2015). Misuse of stymulant medication among college students: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis. „Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev”, 18, s. 50–76.
Blanchet S., Devine S. (2018). Nootropics in Postmodernity.Interdisciplinary. „Review of Emerging Technologies”, 1(1), s. 26-30.
Brody B. (2019). What Are Nootropics? „WebMD”, data dostępu: 23.06.2020.
Chaker A.M. (2019). Nootropic or not? Brain-Booster Business Raises Concerns. „The Wall Street Journal”, data dostępu: 26.06.2020.
Chiroma S.M., Taib C.N.M., Moklas M.A.M., Baharuldin M.T.H, Amon Z., Jagadeesan S. (2019). The use of nootropics in Alzheimer’s disease: is there a light at the end of the tunel? „Biomedical Research and Therapy”, 6(1), s 2937-2944.
Choy T.L. (2015). Cognitive-enhancing drugs in the healthy population: Fundamental drawbacks and researcher roles. „Cogent Psychology”, 2(1),; data dostępu: 10.06.2020.
De Bruyn S., Wouters E., Ponnet K., Van Hal G. (2019). Popping smart pills in medical school: Are competition and stress associated with the misuse of prescription stimulants among students? „Substance Use &Misuse”, 54(7), s. 1191-1201.
Deline S., Baggio S., Studer J., N’goran A. A, Dupuis M., Henchoz Y., Mohler-Kuo M., Daeppen J-B., Gmel, G. (2014). Use of neuroenhancement drugs: Prevalence, frequency and use expectations in Switzerland. „International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health”, 11, s. 3032–3045.
Dietz P., Striegel H., Franke A. G., Lieb K., Simo, P., Ulrich, R. (2013). Randomized response estimates for the 12-month prevalence of cognitive-enhancing drug use in university students. „Pharmacotherapy”, 33, s. 44–50.
Faulmuller N., Maslen H., de Sio F. S. (2013). The indirect psychological costs of cognitive enhancement. „The American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB”, 13, s. 45–47.
Franke A. G., Bonertz C., Christmann M., Huss M., Fellgiebel A., Hildt E., Lieb, K. (2011). Non-medical use of prescription stimulants and illicit use of stimulants for cognitive enhancement in pupils and students in Germany. „Pharmacopsychiatry”, 44, s. 60–66.
Gilleen J., Michalopoulou P. G., Reichenberg A., Drake R., Wykes T., Lewis S. W., Kapur, S. (2014). Modafinil combined with cognitive training is associated with improved learning in healthy volunteers – a randomised controlled trial. „European Neuropsychopharmacology: The Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology”, 24, s. 529–539.
Główczewska-Siedlecka E., Główczewska J., Mądra-Gackowska K., Gackowski M., Nowacka K., Siedlecki Z., Szostak M., Kędziora-Kornatowska K. (2017). Assessment of the prevalence of nootropic drugs by eldery patients in geriatric practice. „Journal of Education, Health and Sport”, 7(8), s. 1531-1539.
Gunia A. (2017). Umysł vs umysł 2.0. Społeczne konsekwencje wzmocnienia poznawczego. „Studia Humanistyczne AGH”, 16(2), s 7-22.
Hall W.D., Lucke J.C. (2010). The enhancement use of neuropharmaceuticals: more scepticism and caution needed. „Addiction”, (105), s. 2041-2043.
Hysek C. M., Simmler L. D., Schillinger N., Meyer N., Schmid Y., Donzelli M., Grouzmann E., Liechti M. E. (2014). Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of methylphenidate and MDMA administered alone or in combination. „International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology”, 17, s. 371–381.
Lisiecka J., Androsiuk J., Perkowski R., Sokołowski R., Ciesielska N., Nowak K., Kędziora-Kornatowska K. (2016). Wpływ suplementów diety na poprawę funkcji poznawczych u osób starszych. „Gerantologia Polska”, 24, s.64-70.
Mache S., Eickenhorst P., Vitzthum K., Klapp B. F., Groneberg D. A. (2012). Cognitive-enhancing substance use at German universities: Frequency, reasons and gender differences. „Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift”, 162, s. 262–271.
Maier L.J., Haug S., Schaub M.P. (2015). Prevelance of and motives for pharmacological neuroenhancement in Switzerland – results from a national internet panel. „Addiction”, 111, s. 280-295.
Maier L.J., Schaub M.P. (2015). The Use of Prescripion Drugs and Drugs of Abuse for Neuroenhancement in Europe. „European Psychologist”, 20(3), s. 155-166.
McCabe S. E., West B. T., Teter C. J. Boyd C. J. (2014). Trends in medical use, diversion, and nonmedical use of prescription medications among college students from 2003 to 2013: Connecting the dots. „Addictive Behaviors”, 39, s. 1176–1182.
Mommaerts J.L., Beerens G., Van den Block L., Soetens E., Schol S., Van De Vijver E., Devroey, D. (2013). Influence of methylphenidate treatment assumptions on cognitive function in healthy young adults in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. „Psychology Research and Behavior Management”, 6, s. 65–74.
Ott R., Biller-Andorno N. (2013). Neuroenhancement among Swiss students – a comparison of users and nonusers. „Pharmacopsychiatry”, 47(1), s. 22–28.
Palińska D., Sobów T. (2004). Stosowanie leków nootropowych w objawowym leczeniu otępień a współczesne standardy medycyny opartej na faktach. „Psychogeriatria Polska”, 1(2), s. 101-108.
Petersen M.A., Norgaard L.S., Traulsen J.M. (2015). Going to the doctor with enhancement in mind – An etnographic study of university students’ use of prescription stimulants and their moral ambivalence. „Drugs Education, Prevention and Policy”, 22(3), s. 201-207.
Schelle K.J., Olthof B.M.J., Reintjes W., Bundt C., Gusman-Vermeer J., van Mil A.C.C. (2015). A survey of substance use for cognitive enhancement by University students in the Netherlands. „Frontiers in System Neuroscience”,; data dostępu: 13.06.2020.
Scheske C., Schnall S. (2012). The Ethics of „Smart Drugs”: Moral Judgments About Healthy People’s Use of Cognitive-Enhancing Drugs. „Basic and Applied Social Psychology”, 34, s. 508-515.
Talih F., Ajaltoun J. (2015). Probable Nootropicinduces Psychiatric Adverse Effects: A Series of Four Cases. „Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience”, 12(11-12), s. 21-25.
Thorley E., Kang I., D’Costa S., Vlazaki M., Ayeko O., Arbe-Barnes E.H., Swerner C.B. (2016). Vrsity Medical Ethics Debate 2015: should nootropic drugs be available under prescripion on the NHS? „Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine”, 11(6),; data dostępu: 10.06.2020.
Van Hal G., Rosiers J., Ponnet K., Wouters E. (2013). Popping smart pills: Prescription stimulant misuse by university and college students in Flanders. „European Journal of Public Health”, 23 (1), s.122.
Verster C., Niekerk A.A. (2012). Moral perspectives on stymulant use by healthy students. „South African Medical Journal”, 102(12), s. 909-911.
Volkow N.D., Fowler J.S., Logan J. i wsp.(2009). Effects of modafinil on dopamine and dopamine transporters in the male human brain: clinical implications, „JAMA”, 301(11), s.1148–1154.
Wiciński M., Węclewicz M., Miętkiewicz M., Stanisławski J., Malinowski B., Grześk E., Stolarek W., Grześk G. (2015). Neurostymulanty – farmakologia przyszłości czy już narkotyki? Stosowanie metylofenidatu i modafinilu w celu polepszenia wyników w nauce, W: A. Wolska-Adamczyk (red.) (s. 195-209) Współczesne kierunki działań prozdrowotnych. Warszawa: WSIiZ.
Zakrawacz P. (2020). Modafinil – cudowny lek? (Działanie, skutki uboczne). „Men’s Health”. data dostępu: 26.06.2020.
Zbyrad T. (2018) „Magiczna moc pigułki”, czyli o farmakologizacji seniorów. „Studia Socialia Cracoviensia”, 1 (18), s. 91–101.